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[290], Marcus was succeeded by his son Commodus, whom he had named Caesar in 166 and with whom he had jointly ruled since 177. [173] At the ceremonies commemorating the event, new provisions were made for the support of poor children, along the lines of earlier imperial foundations. She was the first of at least thirteen children (including two sets of twins) that Faustina would bear over the next twenty-three years. [164] If his funeral followed those of his predecessors, his body would have been incinerated on a pyre at the Campus Martius, and his spirit would have been seen as ascending to the gods' home in the heavens. They did not survive long. Fronto would later explain that he had not dared to write the emperors directly. Unter Kaiser Vespasian hatte er es bis zum Praetor gebracht. Resümierend heißt es: „So selten in den Abhandlungen der klassischen römischen Juristen philosophisches Gedankengut aufscheint, so selten ist es auch Entscheidungsgrundlage oder auch nur Motivation in den kaiserlichen Konstitutionen. Darum ging es u. a. auch in der Einstellung zu den Mitmenschen: Vielerlei Unangenehmes zu verarbeiten, Schicksalsschläge durchzustehen und mit der eigenen Unvollkommenheit auszukommen, auch dazu qualifizierten den Thronanwärter und späteren Kaiser Reflexionen im Geiste der Stoa in besonderem Maße: Eine bessere Vorbereitung auf politische Verantwortungsübernahme, als sie Mark Aurel durchlaufen hat, ist in Hinblick auf die Innenpolitik kaum vorstellbar. [ˈmaːrkʊs̠ au̯ˈreːlijʊs̠ an̪t̪oːˈniːnʊs̠], persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, Last Words of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, "De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families", Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 'Marcus Aurelius: Plato's Philosopher King', 'Column of Marcus Aurelius: Overall view, of base and column', 'The Columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius', Epiphanius' Treatise on Weights and Measures – The Syriac Version, Modern Stoicism: A Case for a Philosopher-King, The Thoughts of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marcus_Aurelius&oldid=1008461806, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Articles with dead external links from January 2021, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox philosopher with embed equal yes, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata mismatch, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW with an wstitle parameter, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, Tiberius Aelius Antoninus (born 152, died before 156), Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus (161–165), elder twin brother of Commodus, dashed lines indicate adoption; dotted lines indicate love affairs/unmarried relationships. Auch nach ihrem Tod verweigerte er ihr ein ehrendes Andenken nicht, was ihn aber andererseits nicht hinderte, alsbald eine Konkubine zu erwählen. Vielleicht im Wissen darum hatte Mark Aurel sie an die Donaufront kommen lassen und sie zur „Mutter des Feldlagers“ erhoben. The day after that, 7 March 161,[146] he summoned the imperial council, and passed the state and his daughter to Marcus. Meditations is still revered as a literary monument to a government of service and duty. Stertz, Stephen A. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus , so sein eigentlicher Name, war ein römischer Kaiser (161–180) und als Nachfolger seines Adoptivvaters Antoninus Pius der letzte der „fünf guten Kaiser“ (nach Machiavelli 1503) aus der Glanzzeit des Römischen Reiches. As the grandson of Arulenus Rusticus, one of the martyrs to the tyranny of Domitian (r. 81–96), he was heir to the tradition of 'Stoic Opposition' to the 'bad emperors' of the 1st century;[121] the true successor of Seneca (as opposed to Fronto, the false one). Nachdem die Christen, die ihrem Glauben nicht abschwören wollten, in Lugdunum 177 in der Arena getötet worden waren, sind weitere Christenverfolgungen in der Regierungszeit Mark Aurels nicht überliefert. Auch er war der "Realpolitik" unterworfen, um das Imperium Romanum Reich vor dem Untergang zu bewahren. There was then a crop of growing corn; there is now a ripe, gathered harvest. Antoninus may have already been ill.[135], Two days before his death, the biographer reports, Antoninus was at his ancestral estate at Lorium, in Etruria,[144] about 19 kilometres (12 mi) from Rome. [24][25][note 1], Marcus's mother, Domitia Lucilla Minor (also known as Domitia Calvilla), was the daughter of the Roman patrician P. Calvisius Tullus and inherited a great fortune (described at length in one of Pliny's letters) from her parents and grandparents. Erneut weit vorfristig, nämlich schon mit 18 Jahren, bekleidete er im folgenden Jahr sein erstes Konsulat. Weitere große Christenverfolgungen fanden im Herbst 177 in Gallien statt. Do I not know that you went to Alsium with the intention of devoting yourself to games, joking, and complete leisure for four whole days? Marcus defeated the Marcomanni, Quadi, and Sarmatian Iazyges in the Marcomannic Wars; however, these and other Germanic peoples began to represent a troubling reality for the Empire. [38] Marcus thanks his grandfather for teaching him 'good character and avoidance of bad temper'. Geburtsort:Rom (I). Basics are as much part of our product assortment as trendy pieces, shirts with tiger print or dresses with flowers. It 'affected his health adversely', his biographer writes, to have devoted so much effort to his studies. His first consulship was in 161, so he was probably in his early thirties,[210] and as a patrician, he lacked military experience. In einer Offensive eroberten die Römer 172 die Region Moravia (Mähren), womit die ebenfalls feindlich gesinnten Sarmaten von den Quaden abgeschnitten waren, und unterwarfen schließlich bis ins Jahr 174 auch die Markomannen und Quaden. [270], Like many emperors, Marcus spent most of his time addressing matters of law such as petitions and hearing disputes,[271] but unlike many of his predecessors, he was already proficient in imperial administration when he assumed power. [307] Their children included: Except where otherwise noted, the notes below indicate that an individual's parentage is as shown in the above family tree. Der Herrschaftsantritt des Philosophen Mark Aurel als Kaiser hätte demnach ein problematisches Spannungsfeld erzeugen können. [51] Als charakteristische Eigenschaften, die ihm in der Historia Augusta durchgängig zugeschrieben werden, nennt Geoff W. Adams Mäßigung, Gleichmut, Selbstbeherrschung und Verantwortung. [249] Soon after the conquest of the north bank of the Euphrates, other Roman forces moved on Osroene from Armenia, taking Anthemusia, a town southwest of Edessa. [105] Marcus asks that Fronto's pain be inflicted on himself, 'of my own accord with every kind of discomfort'. [71], Religionspolitik und Christenverfolgungen, Die Usurpation des Avidius Cassius und das Nachfolgeproblem, Nachhaltige Verehrung und Vereinnahmung in der Antike, Neuzeitliche Annäherungen und gegenwärtige Deutungen. [49] Marcus thanks Alexander for his training in literary styling. [155][note 9] It was the first time that Rome was ruled by two emperors. He had a logical mind and his notes were representative of Stoic philosophy and spirituality. Instead, Marcus was in the care of 'nurses',[37] and was raised after his father's death by his grandfather Marcus Annius Verus (II), who had always retained the legal authority of patria potestas over his son and grandson. 58 (1968): 32–50. [317] It survived in the scholarly traditions of the Eastern Church and the first surviving quotes of the book, as well as the first known reference of it by name ('Marcus's writings to himself') are from Arethas of Caesarea in the 10th century and in the Byzantine Suda (perhaps inserted by Arethas himself). [258] On 12 October of that year, Marcus proclaimed two of his sons, Annius and Commodus, as his heirs. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (/ɔːˈriːliəs/ ə-REE-lee-əs;[2] Latin: [ˈmaːrkʊs̠ au̯ˈreːlijʊs̠ an̪t̪oːˈniːnʊs̠]; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. );[73] direct evidence for membership, however, is available only for the Arval Brethren. It survives as the church of San Lorenzo in Miranda. Seine christlichen Zeitgenossen reagierten aber nicht einhellig mit Ablehnung. Diese ist auf der nach ihr benannten Piazza Colonna in Rom zu finden. [50], In der anderen wichtigen antiken Quelle zu Leben und Herrschaft Mark Aurels, der im 4. [223] Lucius's biographer suggests ulterior motives: to restrain Lucius's debaucheries, to make him thrifty, to reform his morals by the terror of war, and to realize that he was an emperor. [23] Through his grandmother Rupilia, Marcus was a member of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty; the emperor Trajan's sororal niece Salonia Matidia was the mother of Rupilia and her half-sister, Hadrian's wife Sabina. Auf diesem Feldzug starb der Kaiser am 17. [66] For his dutiful behaviour, Antoninus was asked to accept the name 'Pius'. Verus, der ja einst von Hadrian als Hauptkaiser vorgesehen gewesen war, hat sich offenbar zeitlebens in dieses Arrangement gefügt; 164 heiratete er die Tochter Mark Aurels, Lucilla. Er war wie Cicero ein Philosoph auf dem römischen Kaiserthron. [33] His father probably died in 124, when Marcus was three years old during his praetorship. Den Kopf des Empörers sandte man Markus, der ihn anzusehen sich jedoch weigerte und die Bestattung anordnete. [55], In die Nachfolge des Marcus Aurelius Antoninus stellte sich nicht nur sein Sohn Commodus, sondern stellten sich auch Septimius Severus, der sich zwecks Herrschaftslegitimation (fiktiv) zum Bruder des Commodus und zum Adoptivsohn Mark Aurels erklärte, und dessen Nachfolger in der Severer-Dynastie. Der spätere Kaiser Mark Aurel wurde als Marcus Annius Catilius Severus in Rom geboren. His name at birth was supposedly Marcus Annius Verus,[12] but some sources assign this name to him upon his father's death and unofficial adoption by his grandfather, upon his coming of age,[13][14][15] or at the time of his marriage. Mark Aurels eigene Sicht zur Frage des Nachruhms ist in den Selbstbetrachtungen enthalten: Neben den Selbstbetrachtungen (siehe unten): Eine detailliertere Darstellung der Quellensituation bietet Birley. [200], There was threat of war on other frontiers as well – in Britain, and in Raetia and Upper Germany, where the Chatti of the Taunus mountains had recently crossed over the limes. Im Privatleben konnten sie ihr Christentum demnach in der Regel ungestört praktizieren, auch wenn es de iure ein Kapitalverbrechen war, Christ zu sein. Iain King explains that Marcus's legacy was tragic: "[The emperor's] Stoic philosophy – which is about self-restraint, duty, and respect for others – was so abjectly abandoned by the imperial line he anointed on his death. The extent to which Marcus himself directed, encouraged, or was aware of these persecutions is unclear and much debated by historians. Über die peinlich genaue Beachtung der römischen Kultrituale wurde im Alltag gleichwohl gewacht, weil man meinte, dass politischer Erfolg und Misserfolg davon abhingen. Von Mark Aurel sind zahlreiche Entscheidungen überliefert1, im Bereich der Berufungen finden sich jedoch lediglich zwei zur Untersuchung geeignete Texte. Marcus had chosen a reliable man rather than a talented one. Technically this was not an adoption, the creation of a new and different patria potestas. Liity Facebookiin ja pidä yhteyttä käyttäjän Mark Aurel ja muiden tuttujesi kanssa. [4] For Marcus's life and rule, the biographies of Hadrian, Antoninus, Marcus, and Lucius are largely reliable, but those of Aelius Verus and Avidius Cassius are not. Farquharson dates his death to 130 when Marcus was nine. [179] The tutor was immensely proud of his students. The five horizontal slits allow light into the internal spiral staircase. The city was sacked nonetheless, leaving a black mark on Lucius's reputation. [61], At some time in 138, Hadrian requested in the senate that Marcus be exempt from the law barring him from becoming quaestor before his twenty-fourth birthday. Dieser Artikel ist als Audiodatei verfügbar: Dieser Artikel wurde am 24. Unlike some of his predecessors, Marcus chose not to adopt an heir. [268] Soon thereafter, the Iranian Sarmatian Iazyges attacked between the Danube and the Theiss rivers. Hatte seit den Zeiten Trajans kein Kaiser mehr an der Spitze der Armee im Krieg gestanden, so kam nun die Militärmonarchie als Ursprung des Prinzipats wieder deutlich zum Vorschein. Es gibt viele Übersetzungen der Selbstbetrachtungen von Marc Aurel, z.B. [265], Experienced governors had been replaced by friends and relatives of the imperial family. Schauen Sie sich Beispiele für Mark Aurel-Übersetzungen in Sätzen an, hören Sie sich die Aussprache an und lernen Sie die Grammatik. Marc Aurel führte Kriege gegen die Jazygen, die Quaden und die Markomannen. The senate would soon grant him the name Augustus and the title imperator, and he would soon be formally elected as Pontifex Maximus, chief priest of the official cults. Ackermann, Marsha E.; Schroeder, Michael J.; Terry, Jancie J.; Lo Upshur, Jiu-Hwa; Whitters, Mark F. An, Jiayao. Then, like every new emperor since Claudius, Lucius promised the troops a special donative. [131] Faustina probably had another daughter in 151, but the child, Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina, might not have been born until 153. Fronto felt that, because of Marcus's prominence and public duties, lessons were more important now than they had ever been before. Antoninus's remains were laid to rest in Hadrian's mausoleum, beside the remains of Marcus's children and of Hadrian himself. He decreased the silver purity of the denarius from 83.5% to 79% – the silver weight dropping from 2.68 g (0.095 oz) to 2.57 g (0.091 oz). His condition did not improve, and he abandoned the diet prescribed by his doctors, indulging himself in food and drink. Mark Aurel, der die problematischen Wesenszüge seines Sohnes wahrgenommen haben mag, blieb wohl immerhin die Hoffnung, dass Commodus nach der Pubertät in seine Aufgaben hineinwachsen würde. Marc Aurel war ein bedeutender römischer Kaiser und Philosoph. They performed ritual dances dedicated to Mars, the god of war, while dressed in arcane armour, carrying shields and weapons. [40] Marcus was grateful that he did not have to live with her longer than he did. [192] Marcus had displayed rhetorical skill in his speech to the senate after an earthquake at Cyzicus. [8] Es war daher üblich, den gewünschten Nachfolger im Vorfeld durch Ehrungen und die Verleihung wichtiger Titel und Vollmachten eindeutig zu kennzeichnen. πέφυρσαι οὖν, ὥστε τὴν μὲν δόξαν τὴν τοῦ φιλοσόφου κτήσασθαι οὐκέτι σοι ῥᾴδιον˙ ἀνταγωνίζεται δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπόθεσις. He sent for Antoninus, who was at his side when he died on 10 July 138. Unter bestimmten äußeren und inneren Bedingungen gewährleistete diese Praxis einer stillschweigenden Duldung jedoch nicht überall die persönliche Sicherheit. [291] Biological sons of the emperor, if there were any, were considered heirs;[292] however, it was only the second time that a "non-adoptive" son had succeeded his father, the only other having been a century earlier when Vespasian was succeeded by his son Titus. Lucius asked Fronto to adjudicate in a dispute he and his friend Calpurnius were having on the relative merits of two actors. Im Jahre 175 erhob sich als Usurpator der syrische Statthalter Avidius Cassius. Oktober 2004), Mehr Informationen zur gesprochenen Wikipedia, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mark_Aurel&oldid=208472398, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. The boy did not survive long, as evidenced by coins from 156, only depicting the two girls. [58], Die längerfristige christliche Rezeption geprägt hat aber vor allem der Zeitgenosse des christenfreundlichen Kaisers Konstantin, Eusebius von Caesarea, der Mark Aurel als Christenverfolger herausstellte und ihm speziell den Märtyrertod des Polykarp von Smyrna 155 anlastete (als Antoninus Pius noch Kaiser war). [287] Raoul McLaughlin writes that the travel of Roman subjects to the Han Chinese court in 166 may have started a new era of Roman–Far East trade. Husband of Ceionia Fabia: Levick (2014), p. 164. B. auf Gladiatoren-Sklaven gelang es den Römern in der Folge, auch im germanischen Vorfeld jenseits der Donau wieder Fuß zu fassen, die Angreifer zurückzuschlagen und die verschiedenen germanischen Stämme je nach Einschätzung ihrer Zuverlässigkeit durch unterschiedlich bevorzugte Behandlung bei Vertragsschlüssen gegeneinander auszuspielen. A frontier post had been destroyed, and it looked like all the peoples of central and northern Europe were in turmoil. After Severianus made some unsuccessful efforts to engage Chosrhoes, he committed suicide, and his legion was massacred. [316], It is not known how widely Marcus's writings were circulated after his death. '[214] He encouraged Marcus to rest, calling on the example of his predecessors (Antoninus had enjoyed exercise in the palaestra, fishing, and comedy),[215] going so far as to write up a fable about the gods' division of the day between morning and evening – Marcus had apparently been spending most of his evenings on judicial matters instead of at leisure. Marcus Servilius Fabianus Maximus was shuffled from Lower Moesia to Upper Moesia when Marcus Iallius Bassus had joined Lucius in Antioch. So verwandte er oft bis zu elf oder zwölf Tage auf die Verhandlung eines einzigen Falles, obwohl er manchmal sogar nachts Sitzungen abhielt. [41], From a young age, Marcus displayed enthusiasm for wrestling and boxing. ', p. 69. If this was the case, it is clear that they were unsuccessful because of the severe break in the character representation of Marcus Aurelius and the biographical inconsistency in the narrative that they produce.“ (Geoff W. Adams: „Judging from the evidence, it is clear that Marcus Aurelius was a benevolent and responsible. Beide Augusti, Mark Aurel und Lucius Verus, fanden sich 168 an der Donaufront ein, um Truppeninspektionen durchzuführen und die Lage zu sondieren. [184] Soon, however, he would find he had many anxieties. Worauf es ihm nach eigener Aussage ankam, war in hellenistischer philosophischer Tradition ein vernunftgeleiteter und gemeinwohlorientierter Machtgebrauch, der mit den Grenzen der eigenen Kompetenz rechnete und dem größeren Sachverstand den Vortritt ließ bzw. Andererseits sprachen der Altersvorsprung und die Nähe zu Antoninus für Mark Aurel als künftigen Thronerben.[6]. Numerous members of Germanic tribes settled in frontier regions like Dacia, Pannonia, Germany, and Italy itself. This website uses cookies, which are necessary for the technical operation of the website and are always set. In diesem Fall wurden sie hingerichtet. In gleicher Richtung hat er auch als oberstes Rechtsprechungsorgan des Reiches gewirkt, ein Amt, das er mit mustergültiger Sorgfalt und beispielloser Hingabe ausgeübt hat. [6] Marcus's own Meditations offer a window on his inner life, but are largely undateable and make few specific references to worldly affairs. Another daughter was born on 7 March 150, Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla. [108] Fronto replied that he was surprised to discover Marcus counted Atticus as a friend (perhaps Atticus was not yet Marcus's tutor), and allowed that Marcus might be correct,[109] but nonetheless affirmed his intent to win the case by any means necessary: '[T]he charges are frightful and must be spoken of as frightful. Mit seiner Regierungszeit endete in mancherlei Hinsicht eine Phase innerer und u erer Stabilit t und Prosperit t f r das R mische Reich, die ra der sogenannten Adoptivkaiser. III'. Römische Truppen drangen sogar zeitweilig bis nach Medien vor. He was a man suited for a time of military crisis. Champlin, 'Chronology of Fronto', p. 138. The column, right, in the background of Panini's painting of the Palazzo Montecitorio, with the base of the Column of Antoninus Pius in the right foreground (1747). Fündling zufolge firmierte Herkules auch als Sinnbild eines rastlosen Herrschers, der die Welt in Übereinstimmung mit stoischen Grundsätzen von Plagen reinigt: „Das Spektakel des blutbespritzten Commodus mag ein Versuch gewesen sein, aus dem Vorbild etwas Eigenes zu machen, ein auf den Hund gekommener Stoizismus.“[43]. [107] Marcus pleaded with Fronto, first with 'advice', then as a 'favour', not to attack Atticus; he had already asked Atticus to refrain from making the first blows. [91] Atticus was an inveterate opponent of Stoicism and philosophic pretensions. Damit folgte er im Grunde der bereits unter Augustus und anderen Kaisern formulierten Idee, dass die aristokratische libertas unter einem guten princeps geachtet werden müsse. Nur mit bedeutenden Anstrengungen auch hinsichtlich der Kriegsfinanzierung (s.

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